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工业厂房亿博手机客户端下载要点分析

   单层厂房 

  厂房内一般按水平方向布置生产线。这种厂房结构简单,可以采用大跨度、大进深;便于使用重型起重运输设备,地面上可安装重型设备;可以利用天窗采光、通风。单层厂房的适应性强,既可用于生产重型产品,又可用于生产轻型产品;既可建成大跨度、大面积的,也可建小跨度、小面积的。但是占地大,相应地增加了室外道路、管线和运输线路的长度。 
  可采用单跨或多跨(联跨)平面,各跨多平行布置,也可有垂直跨。厂房多呈矩形,一些热加工车间厂房常采用п形、形。生活用房和辅助用房多沿柱边布置或利用吊车的死角处,也可集中建在厂房附近或贴建于厂房四周,但不宜过多,以免妨碍厂房采光和通风。
  单层厂房柱距多用6米,间或采用9、12、18米等,跨度也采用以3米为基本参数,以便于构件的定型化。多跨厂房各跨的高度不同,应适当调整,以简化构件和构造处理,改善采光、通风效果。 
  单层厂房结构通常用钢筋混凝土构架体系,特殊高大或有振动的厂房可用钢结构体系。在不需要重型吊车或大型悬挂运输设备时,还可采用薄壳、网架、悬索(见悬挂结构建筑)等大型空间结构,以扩大柱网,增加灵活性。 
    The production line is generally arranged horizontally in the plant. This kind of workshop has simple structure, can adopt large span and deep depth; it is easy to use heavy lifting and transportation equipment, and can install heavy equipment on the ground; it can use skylight for lighting and ventilation. The single-layer workshop has strong adaptability, which can be used to produce heavy products and light products; it can be built into large-span, large area, small span and small area. However, due to the large land occupation, the length of outdoor roads, pipelines and transportation lines has been increased accordingly.
    Most of the workshops are rectangular, and some of the hot working workshop workshops usually adopt the shape of п. The living room and auxiliary room are mostly arranged along the edge of the column or at the dead corner of the crane. They can also be built in the vicinity of the plant or around the plant. However, they should not be too much, so as not to hinder the lighting and ventilation of the plant.. The height of each span of multi span plant is different, so it should be adjusted appropriately to simplify the treatment of components and structures, and improve the lighting and ventilation effect.
     When there is no need for heavy crane or large suspension transportation equipment, large space structures such as thin shell, grid, suspension cable (see suspension structure building) can also be used to expand the column network and increase flexibility.
    多层厂房  
  多层厂房是在单层厂房基础上发展起来的。这类厂房有利于安排竖向生产流程,管线集中,管理方便,占地面积小。如果安排重型的和振动较大的生产车间,则结构设计比较复杂。 
  多层厂房平面有多种形式,最常见的是:内廊式不等跨布置,中间跨作通道;等跨布置,适用于大面积灵活布置的生产车间。以自然采光为主的多层厂房,宽度一般为15~24米,过宽则中间地带采光不足。交通枢纽、管道井常布置在中心部位,空调机房则可设在厂房的一侧或底层,利用技术夹层、竖井通至各层。
  多层厂房层高一般为4~5米,有时为取得足够的自然光,可达6米,要考虑设备和悬挂运输机具的高度。多层厂房的底层,多布置对外运输频繁的原料粗加工、设备较大、用水较多的车间或原料和成品库。多层厂房的顶层便于加大跨度和开设天窗,宜布置大面积加工装配车间或精密加工车间。其他各层根据生产线作出安排。 
  多层厂房各层间主要依靠货梯连系,楼梯宜靠外墙布置。有时为简化结构,也可将交通运输枢纽设在与厂房毗邻的连接体内。在用斗式提升机、滑道、输液通道、风动管道等重力运输设备的生产车间,如面粉厂,其工段要严格按照工艺流程布置。生活辅助用房常布置在各层端部,以接近所服务的工段,也可将生活辅助用房贴建在主厂房外,利用楼梯错层连接。 
  多层厂房多采用钢筋混凝土框架结构体系,或预制、或现浇,或二者相结合;也广泛采用无梁楼盖体系,如升板等类型。楼面荷载应考虑工艺变更时的适应性,也要考虑为设备安装和大修留起吊孔。
    Multi story factory building is developed on the basis of single story factory building. This kind of workshop is conducive to the arrangement of vertical production process, centralized pipelines, convenient management and small floor area. If heavy and vibration workshop is arranged, the structure design is more complex.
    The plane of multi-storey workshop has many forms, the most common one is: the inner gallery is arranged with unequal span, and the middle span is used as the passage; the equal span layout is suitable for the production workshop with large area and flexible layout. The width of multi-storey factory buildings with natural lighting as the main part is generally 15-24m. If they are too wide, the lighting in the middle zone is insufficient. Transportation hub and pipeline well are usually arranged in the center, while air conditioning room can be set on one side or bottom floor of the plant, and technical interlayer and shaft are used to connect to each floor.
     At the bottom of the multi-storey factory building, more workshops or raw materials and finished products warehouses with frequent external transportation, large equipment and more water are arranged. The top floor of the multi-storey workshop is convenient for increasing the span and opening the skylight, and large-area processing and assembly workshop or precision processing workshop should be arranged. Other layers shall be arranged according to the production line.
     Sometimes, in order to simplify the structure, the transportation hub can also be located in the connection body adjacent to the plant. In the production workshop with bucket elevator, slideway, infusion channel, pneumatic pipeline and other gravity transportation equipment, such as flour mill, the working section shall be arranged in strict accordance with the process flow. The auxiliary living room is usually arranged at the end of each floor to approach the section served. The auxiliary living room can also be pasted outside the main workshop and connected by stairs.
    The multi-storey factory buildings mostly adopt reinforced concrete frame structure system, or prefabricated, or cast-in-place, or a combination of the two; also widely use the beamless floor system, such as lifting slab and other types. The adaptability of process change shall be considered for floor load, and lifting holes shall be reserved for equipment installation and overhaul.
    热加工厂房
  这种厂房内在生产过程中散发大量余热或烟尘,厂房设计应着重解决散热排烟问题,一般以采用自然通风散热为主,机械排热为辅。设计中还要综合考虑车间内外对环境的污染和影响。 
  热加工厂房多为窄长的单跨厂房,以利自然通风,面积大的也可用联跨。厂房内的热源布置要考虑对相邻工段的影响,如果常年风压不大,热源最好正对排风口(如天窗等),以减少室内的紊乱气流。 
  在剖面设计中,单跨厂房须增大低侧窗的面积(或用大面积开敞的大门)和增大高侧窗的面积,利用其高差以利通风换气。天窗要有足够高度,以利排气。在温暖地区,可采用开敞式或半开敞式建筑。为防暴风雨侵袭,可设挡雨板,并兼作遮阳用。 
  热加工厂房如用作冶炼、轧钢、铸造、锻压等车间,一般设有地沟、地坑和较大的设备基础,地下烟道也较多,宜设在地下水位较低的地段,并作防水处理。此外,对铸造、锻压车间产生的振动、噪声,也都应作处理。 
    This kind of workshop emits a lot of waste heat or smoke during the production process. The design of the workshop should focus on solving the problem of heat dissipation and smoke exhaust, which is generally based on natural ventilation and supplemented by mechanical heat exhaust. In the design, the pollution and impact on the environment inside and outside the workshop should be considered comprehensively.
    Most of the hot processing plants are narrow and long single span plants to facilitate natural ventilation, and the large area can also be connected. The layout of the heat source in the plant should consider the impact on the adjacent sections. If the annual wind pressure is not large, the heat source should be facing the air outlet (such as skylight) to reduce the indoor turbulence.
     The skylight should be high enough to facilitate exhaust. In warm areas, open or semi open buildings can be used. In order to prevent the invasion of wind and rain, a rain shield can be set and used as a sunshade.
    If the hot processing workshop is used for smelting, steel rolling, casting, forging and other workshops, there are generally trenches, pits and large equipment foundations, and there are many underground flues, which should be set in the section with low underground water level, and waterproof treatment should be carried out. In addition, the vibration and noise produced in the foundry and forging workshop should also be dealt with.
    冷加工厂房
  冷加工是与热加工相对而言的,冷加工厂房是生产过程中不散发大量余热的厂房。按生产和建筑特点可分为重型和轻型两类:①重型冷加工厂房。它的加工件的体积、重量都比较大。厂房设计应着重解决铁路运输和重型吊车与厂房的关系,以及轻、重部件加工工段的组合等问题。这类厂房平面常将机械加工和装配工段跨间相互垂直布置。重型部件加工跨间紧靠露天仓库,其余跨间按部件轻重依次排列。也可采用全部平行跨间的组合,由厂房一端引入铁路专用支线,另一端布置生活间。重型冷加工厂房体量大,应合理选择结构形式,处理好厂房体形和立面尺度问题,一般可将辅助用房、办公室、生活间等合并建筑,以节约用地。②轻型冷加工厂房。这种厂房中的加工件都较轻,但数量大,品种多;对生产连续性要求较高,工艺更新周期短,因而在运输路线和设备布置方面要有更大的灵活性。为加大灵活性,宜采用标准设计的大柱网灵活车间,以利于布置不同方向的流水线。结构上要考虑悬挂运输工具路线改变的可能性。厂房内可采用轻型活动隔墙,以适应生产工艺变更的需要。此外,由于加工精度高,人员密集度高,自然采光和通风的要求比重型加工厂房高。 
    Cold working is relative to hot working. Cold working workshop is a workshop that does not emit a lot of waste heat in the production process. According to the characteristics of production and construction, it can be divided into two categories: heavy and light: ① heavy cold processing workshop. The volume and weight of its workpieces are relatively large. The plant design should focus on solving the problems of railway transportation, the relationship between heavy crane and plant, and the combination of light and heavy parts processing sections. In the plane of this kind of workshop, the spans of machining and assembly sections are usually arranged vertically to each other. The heavy parts processing Bay is close to the open warehouse, and the rest bays are arranged according to the weight of the parts. The combination of all parallel spans can also be adopted, with one end of the plant leading into the railway special branch line and the other end arranging the living room. The large volume of heavy-duty cold processing workshop requires reasonable selection of structural form and proper handling of workshop body shape and facade dimension. Generally, auxiliary rooms, offices, living rooms and other buildings can be combined to save land. ② Light cold working workshop. In this kind of workshop, the workpieces are light, but there are large quantities and many varieties; the requirements for production continuity are high, and the process renewal cycle is short, so there should be more flexibility in the transportation route and equipment layout. In order to increase flexibility, it is advisable to use the standard design of large column net flexible workshop to facilitate the arrangement of assembly lines in different directions. The possibility of changing the route of the suspended means of transport should be considered structurally. Light movable partition wall can be used in the workshop to meet the needs of production process change. In addition, due to the high processing accuracy, high personnel density, natural lighting and ventilation requirements of specific gravity processing plant.
    动力站
  大、中型工厂一般都设有各种动力站。动力站建筑可分为两类:一类是供电、供热、供煤气的站房,如自备电站、锅炉房、煤气站等;另一类是供氢气、氧气、乙炔、压缩空气的站房。 
  ①锅炉房和煤气站。在以煤为主要能源的工厂内,常将二者靠近安排,以便共同使用水处理系统、输煤系统、除灰系统,设在厂区内靠近运输干线的地方。较大型锅炉房和煤气站的主要建筑多为三层,以便实现运煤、储煤、除灰的机械化。锅炉房分为加煤层、运转层和出灰层;煤气站分为运煤走廊、煤斗和操作间、发生炉和除渣间。此外,锅炉房还设有烟囱和除尘设施;煤气站的室外设有静电除焦油、循环用水等设备和洗涤塔、冷却塔。高压锅炉房和煤气站还应采取防雷、防爆设施。 
  ②氢气站、氧气站、乙炔发生站、压缩空气站。在总平面布置上这些动力站应靠近其用量较大的车间,以便于瓶罐运输或缩短管线。氢气站、氧气站和乙炔发生站都有较大的火灾和爆炸危险性,因此氧气站应设在乙炔发生站和向大气中排放可燃气体的车间的上风位,乙炔发生站应设在压缩空气站的下风位。这类站房相互间要有一定的安全距离。它们所用原料主要是建筑周围的空气,所以应保持所处地段空气的洁净。 
  氧气站有制氧和灌瓶两部分,产量大的分设成两个车间。充瓶台前设高 2米的防护墙,以防气瓶爆炸伤人。 
  乙炔发生站一般为独立建筑,产量小的可与用气车间合并,但须以实墙分隔,以利防火。 
  压缩空气站有较大的振动和噪声,要远离有防微振要求的车间。规模小的(产量一般每小时小于1000立方米),可贴建于厂房一侧。 
  这些动力站房一般采用单层,柱距尺寸多为6米,跨度为12、15、18米不等。大中型站房设备较多时,可设置检修用的小型单轨吊车。
    Large and medium-sized factories are generally equipped with various power stations. The power station buildings can be divided into two categories: one is the station buildings for power supply, heat supply and gas supply, such as self provided power station, boiler room, gas station, etc.; the other is the station buildings for hydrogen, oxygen, acetylene and compressed air.
    ① boiler room and gas station. In plants with coal as the main energy source, they are often arranged close to each other so that water treatment system, coal handling system and ash removal system can be used together. They are located near the transportation trunk line in the plant area. The main buildings of large boiler house and gas station are mostly three floors, so as to realize the mechanization of coal transportation, coal storage and ash removal. The boiler room is divided into coal adding layer, operation layer and ash discharging layer; the gas station is divided into coal conveying corridor, coal hopper and operation room, generator and slag removal room. In addition, the boiler room is also equipped with chimneys and dust removal facilities; the outdoor gas station is equipped with electrostatic tar removal, circulating water and other equipment as well as washing tower and cooling tower. High pressure boiler room and gas station shall also be equipped with lightning protection and explosion-proof facilities.
   ② hydrogen station, oxygen station, acetylene generation station and compressed air station. In the general layout, these power stations should be close to the workshop with large consumption, so as to facilitate the transportation of bottles and tanks or shorten the pipeline. Hydrogen station, oxygen station and acetylene generating station all have great fire and explosion risks, so oxygen station shall be set in the upper wind position of acetylene generating station and workshop discharging combustible gas to the atmosphere, and acetylene generating station shall be set in the lower wind position of compressed air station. There should be a certain safe distance between such stations. The raw materials they use are mainly the air around the building, so the air in the area should be kept clean.
    The oxygen station has two parts of oxygen production and bottle filling, and the one with large output is divided into two workshops. A 2m high protective wall is set up in front of the filling table to prevent the explosion of gas cylinders from hurting people.
    Generally, the acetylene generating station is an independent building, and the small production can be combined with the gas workshop, but it must be separated by solid walls to facilitate fire prevention.
     Small scale (the output is generally less than 1000 cubic meters per hour) can be pasted on one side of the plant.
    When there are many large and medium-sized station equipment, small monorail crane for maintenance can be set.